Beijing acted against the coronavirus with pleasing pressure, as its considerable narratives portray. But not before a political logjam had allowed a local outbreak to kindle a global pandemic.
By Chris Buckley, David D. Kirkpatrick, Amy Qin and Javier C. Hernández
Basically the most famed doctor in China became once on an urgent mission.
Neatly-assuredly known because the hero who helped describe the SARS epidemic 17 years ago, Dr. Zhong Nanshan, now 84, became once below orders to plod to Wuhan, a metropolis in central China, and investigate a unfamiliar recent coronavirus. His assistant photographed the doctor on the night time advise, eyes closed in thought, a list that can later rocket spherical China and burnish Dr. Zhong’s standing because the nation’s medic utilizing to the rescue.
China’s considerable history now portrays Dr. Zhong’s time out because the cinematic turning level in an in the end triumphant battle against Covid-19, when he found the virus became once spreading dangerously and sped to Beijing to sound the fright. Four days later, on Jan. 23, China’s leader, Xi Jinping, sealed off Wuhan.
That lockdown became once the first decisive step in saving China. But in an outbreak that has since claimed more than 1.7 million lives, it came too slack to forestall the virus from spilling into the rest of the field.
The first fright had genuinely sounded 25 days earlier, exactly a 12 months ago, final Dec. 30. Even before then, Chinese doctors and scientists had been pushing for solutions, but officials in Wuhan and Beijing concealed the extent of infections or refused to behave on warnings.
Politics stymied science, in a tension that can scream the pandemic. China’s delayed preliminary response unleashed the virus on the field and foreshadowed battles between scientists and political leaders over transparency, public smartly being and economics that can play out all over continents.
This text — drawing on Chinese government documents, interior sources, interviews, evaluate papers and books, including skipped over or censored public accounts — examines those 25 days in China that modified the field.
Chinese scientists and deepest laboratories known the coronavirus and mapped its genes weeks before Beijing acknowledged the severity of the pickle. Scientists were speaking to their friends, making an are attempting to raise alarms — and in some cases, they did, if at a trace.
“We additionally spoke the truth,” acknowledged Prof. Zhang Yongzhen, a main virologist in Shanghai. “But no one listened to us, and that’s genuinely tragic.”
As political hostilities erupted between China and the US, scientists on all sides mute leaned on global networks built up over an extended time and sought to portion files — with high scientists recognizing early on that the virus became once potentially contagious among folk.
On Jan. 8, the pinnacle of the Chinese Heart for Disease Control and Prevention, George F. Gao, grew to change into emotional after acknowledging that distress all through a call with his American counterpart, Dr. Robert R. Redfield, per two folk acquainted with Dr. Redfield’s myth of the resolution.
Yet neither Dr. Redfield nor Dr. Gao, every constrained by politics, signaled a public fright. In Beijing, high smartly being officials had received ominous stories from doctors in Wuhan and had despatched two educated teams to analyze. But they lacked the political clout to pickle Wuhan officials and held their tongues in public.
To a diploma, Dr. Zhong’s time out to Wuhan became once less scientific than political. He already knew the virus became once spreading between folk; his true cause became once to destroy the logjam in China’s opaque arrangement of presidency.
“There might be not any doubt human-to-human transmission,” Dr. Zhong wrote in a yarn that he drafted on the advise before reaching Wuhan, per a most original Chinese e book written with his cooperation. “Remind the public not to head to Wuhan rather then for particular reasons, decrease outings and steer clear of gatherings.”
China in the end purchased management, both of the virus and of the myth surrounding it. Nowadays, the Chinese economy is roaring and a few consultants are asking whether the pandemic has tipped the worldwide stability of energy toward Beijing.
China’s resurgence has infuriated President Trump, who spent months blaming Beijing for what he known as “the China virus.” The United States mute hasn’t contained the virus and is paying a heavy trace in deaths and economic impact, while life in all equity fashioned in China.
No longer methodology back, China and the US cooperated successfully to trace and cease viral outbreaks in China. However the Trump administration pulled nearly a dozen public smartly being consultants from Beijing months before the outbreak — effectively closing the eyes of the American government to illness threats from China.
Chinese diplomats argue that the nation’s yarn of stifling infections after the Wuhan lockdown has vindicated Mr. Xi’s true-arm politics, even because the government has airbrushed over the early weeks, when decisive motion also can relish curbed the outbreak. One early scrutinize projected that China also can relish lowered the total sequence of cases by 66 percent had officials acted per week earlier. Motion three weeks earlier also can relish dropped the caseload by 95 percent.
China’s reluctance to be clear about those preliminary weeks has additionally left gaping holes in what the field knows about the coronavirus. Scientists relish little insight into the achieve and how the virus emerged, in share on myth of Beijing has delayed an impartial investigation into the animal origins of the outbreak.
“They’re missing a honest alternative to learn,” acknowledged Yanzhong Huang, a senior fellow on the Council on International Household members who stories Chinese smartly being coverage. “There’s no serious discussion on what genuinely went infamous.”
‘Each person Seen It on the Web’
On Dec. 30, after doctors in Wuhan came all over patients with a mysterious, onerous-to-contend with pneumonia, metropolis authorities ordered hospitals to yarn connected cases. By coverage, the hospitals will deserve to relish additionally reported them directly to the nationwide C.D.C. in Beijing.
Barely 12 minutes after the interior scrutinize became once issued, even though, it spilled onto WeChat, China’s terminate to-ubiquitous social media provider, and a later second interior scrutinize on patient care additionally hasty spread online, till talk of a mysterious pneumonia outbreak reached Dr. Gao, the Oxford-trained virologist who heads the Chinese C.D.C.
“Wasn’t all of it being talked about on the web?” Dr. Gao acknowledged in a swiftly interview when asked about how he learned about the Wuhan cases. “Each person noticed it on the web.”
Slack that night time, the Chinese Nationwide Health Commission ordered health workers to plod to Wuhan in the morning.
Hours later, the scientific files provider ProMED issued a bulletin to global smartly being professionals, including the World Health Organization. It straight reminded some scientists of the SARS epidemic of 2002-03 — which became once introduced about by a coronavirus outbreak in China and killed nearly 800 folk worldwide.
“My first response is: ‘Oh hell, right here is SARS revisited,’” acknowledged Dr. Marjorie P. Pollack, the ProMED deputy editor in New York who issued the Dec. 30 bulletin and had additionally helped put out an early alert about SARS.
In Wuhan, the outbreak regarded concentrated on the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. A week earlier, local doctors had despatched lung fluid from a in miserable health 65 12 months-ragged market employee to Imaginative and prescient Medicals, a genomics agency in southern China. It found a coronavirus roughly equivalent to SARS. Two more industrial labs rapidly reached the identical conclusion.
None dared walk public.
Many coronaviruses are found in animals and folk, and few are dire smartly being threats. But two, SARS and MERS, had jumped from animals in most original years to spread person to person, causing serious and assuredly lethal sickness.
Imaginative and prescient Medicals despatched its data to the Chinese Academy of Scientific Science in Beijing and dispatched a high executive to warn the Wuhan Health Commission.
The Beijing team that arrived in Wuhan on the final day of 2019 became once hasty truly helpful about the laboratory outcomes, Dr. Cao Bin, a member of the team, truly helpful a Chinese newspaper.
At that level, the Wuhan government had publicly confirmed that metropolis hospitals were facing an odd pneumonia nonetheless denied it became once doubtlessly contagious.
At the identical time, the Nationwide Health Commission truly helpful the industrial labs to homicide or give up samples with the virus, and ordered that evaluate findings be printed simplest after considerable approval. The head of the Guangdong Health Commission, below orders from Beijing, led a team to Imaginative and prescient Medicals to use its sample.
No subject the restrictions, scientists saved speaking all over borders. Prof. Stanley Perlman texted a Chinese colleague on Jan. 4 about rumors of a brand recent coronavirus, and became once hasty truly helpful to swap to an encrypted cell phone app.
“He acknowledged, ‘Yes, it’s a coronavirus and it’s a ways mute not being publicized to boot to one would esteem,’” acknowledged Professor Perlman, who teaches on the College of Iowa, adding that his friend smartly-known that four laboratories had sequenced the virus. “So there became once some dark stuff going on.”
The team from Beijing rushed collectively guides on treating patients and helped browbeat local officials into shuttering the market. But one of many investigators wasn’t timid about the surge of rush for Spring Festival, China’s Lunar New Year vacation later in January.
“China has gathered an extended time of ride in infectious illness management,” Dr. Xu Jianguo truly helpful a Hong Kong newspaper. “There might be not any doubt no probability of standard dispersal attributable to Spring Festival rush.”
‘There Would be Consequences’
Better than 500 miles to the east, Zhang Yongzhen, a main virologist on the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Heart, became once very timid.
Bask in different other Chinese labs, Professor Zhang and his team had cracked the virus’s genetic code and concluded that it’s going to be contagious. No longer like the choice labs, he felt an duty to publish the files to attend researchers work on tests, treatments and vaccines.
“I don’t know,” Professor Zhang acknowledged in a lengthy interview, when asked why others didn’t walk public. “For many in China, it’s more uncomplicated to scream what officials esteem to listen to.”
After Professor Zhang’s team done sequencing the virus on Jan. 5, his center internally warned leaders in Shanghai and smartly being officials in Beijing, recommending protective steps in public spaces.
He additionally prepared to begin the information, a step that took on added urgency after he visited Wuhan to discuss at a university on Jan. 9. That identical day, the government confirmed the recent illness became once a coronavirus, nonetheless officials continued to diminish the aptitude distress.
At dinner, a community of Wuhan doctors truly helpful him the outbreak became once worse than officials were admitting.
“The doctors on the scientific frontline no doubt felt this the sharpest,” he acknowledged. “I knew that this sickness became once no doubt fairly ferocious.”
On Jan. 11, Professor Zhang became once about to board a flight to Beijing when he received a call from his longtime evaluate partner, Edward Holmes, a virologist on the College of Sydney.
By now, China had reported its first virus loss of life and cases were suspected in Hong Kong. Professor Zhang had already submitted his sequence to GenBank, a necessary online library of genetic data, nonetheless the review direction of became once taking time.
Professor Holmes prodded his friend. Take a look on the rising sequence of cases in Wuhan, he acknowledged. Take a look on the cases turning up in Hong Kong.
It became once a resolution that simplest Professor Zhang also can originate, Professor Holmes truly helpful him. Releasing the information risked offending smartly being officials who were intent on controlling files and claiming credit score for sequencing the virus. Professor Zhang acknowledged he wished a second to reflect as his aircraft taxied to make a choice off.
“In per chance not as much as a minute I straight known as him,” Professor Zhang acknowledged. “I truly helpful him to begin it.”
Soon the information became once up on a virology web pages.
Some two and a half hours later, Professor Zhang landed in Beijing. When he turn into on his cell phone, messages poured in.
“Getting it out hasty became once the finest aim,” Professor Holmes acknowledged. “We knew that there would be consequences.”
Dr. Redfield, director of the U.S. Companies and products for Disease Control and Prevention, became once an ragged friend of his Chinese counterpart, Dr. Gao, and genuinely educated in the identical area, virology.
The two men had spoken after the ProMED alert, nonetheless Dr. Gao had insisted that the virus had spread simplest from animals on the market, not from person to person.
But now, on Jan. 8, Dr. Gao became once agitated, per two folk acquainted with Dr. Redfield’s myth of the resolution. The virus had contaminated scientific workers, Dr. Gao acknowledged, and became once jumping between folk, despite the denials by local officials.
Politically, it became once a dangerous situation for both men.
As its change battle with China escalated, the Trump administration had all nonetheless eliminated a public smartly being partnership with Beijing that had begun after the debacle of SARS and became once supposed to attend prevent doable pandemics. By pulling out, present and archaic agency officials reveal, Washington nick itself off from doable intelligence about the virus, and misplaced a gamble to work with China against it.
Below the partnership, teams of American doctors were stationed in China and, over time, helped advise more than 2,500 Chinese public smartly being crew. Better than 15 traveled to the US for practicing, as smartly.
“Our trainees,” the People known as them.
Idea to be one of many American doctors became once stationed inner the Chinese C.D.C., constructing ties with trainees trot for posts all over the nation, and socializing with Chinese doctors.
“You might also be in a device to impact extremely main files,” acknowledged Dr. Jeffrey Koplan, a archaic agency director who helped put up the association, “in particular on a threatening recent illness.”
In a review of 10 years of partnership, doctors on all sides argued that it had helped prevent doable pandemics, equivalent to avian flu, which first appeared in the southern province of Guangdong. China let U.S. epidemiologists join the response and despatched scientists to The usa for practicing, a partnership that continued as these days as 2017, when a newly virulent stress spread to other international locations and killed more than 600 folk.
“We labored shoulder to shoulder with the China C.D.C.,” recalled Dr. Tom Frieden, the pinnacle of the U.S. agency below President Barack Obama. With extra spread and the infamous mutation, Dr. Frieden added, “It would also relish been an outbreak.”
One other American program in the nation — known as Predict — sought to device terrible pathogens in animals, in particular coronaviruses, before they also can soar to folk. Idea to be one of many labs it labored with became once in Wuhan.
Yet in July 2019, without public clarification, the US pulled out the final American doctor inner the Chinese C.D.C. A separate Beijing put of job of the American C.D.C. closed months later. It had once incorporated more than a dozen American specialists and 40 Chinese public smartly being workers. By December, all that remained were two epidemiologists, an files know-how specialist and a handful of local staff, primarily working on seasonal influenza. The Predict program became once additionally suspended.
Speaking on condition of anonymity, a senior administration considerable acknowledged the C.D.C. had concluded that China also can protect the practicing program with less assistance. No subject terminate cooperation as these days as 2017, a White Home spokesman denied that the next American presence would relish made any distinction.
“If we’d had 100 folk in China, it will’ve made no distinction given that the Communist Celebration became once certain to protect our folk at nighttime,” the spokesman, John Ullyot, of the Nationwide Security Council, acknowledged.
As his predecessor had with avian flu, Dr. Redfield hasty supplied American attend to combat the outbreak in Wuhan. He truly helpful Dr. Gao that he also can ship 20 epidemiologists in 48 hours.
This time, China by no arrangement popular.
A Toothless Watchdog
On paper, Dr. Ma Xiaowei, the director of China’s Nationwide Health Commission, and primarily the most highly efficient person in the nation’s scientific kinds, wielded brave resources to stay the virus in Wuhan.
In advise, his fingers were tied.
Within the Communist Celebration hierarchy, he stood on the perimeter of the elite, urgent for attention from ever-busy leaders. Exterior Beijing, illness management officials assuredly took their cues from local overseers, not Dr. Ma.
“The provincial leaders relish more reveal,” acknowledged Mr. Huang, the smartly being arrangement educated.
But on Jan. 8, Dr. Ma dispatched a team to Wuhan, to protect up the achieve the outdated Beijing consultants had left off. Officials in Wuhan claimed that no recent cases had been detected for days, and the recent Beijing team did not publicly pickle that evaluate.
“Each person all along had their suspicions about contagiousness,” Wang Guangfa, a respiratory doctor from Peking College First Scientific institution who became once a key member of the team, acknowledged in an interview. “However the implications from the epidemiological investigations didn’t supply sure conclusions.”
Yet inner many Wuhan hospitals, fever wards were crowding. At Tongji Scientific institution, Dr. Zhao Jianping had little doubt what he became once seeing.
“No person anticipated that it will most likely be as extreme because it’s change into,” acknowledged Dr. Zhao, the pinnacle of the respiratory unit, in an myth for a Chinese scientific web pages. “But what became once sure became once that we knew it became once contagious, that human-to-human spread became once going on.”
Zhongnan Scientific institution opened a 24-hour fever sanatorium and an isolation ward, both of which were hasty overrun.
“It felt esteem a anguish became once looming,” Dr. Wang Xinghuan, the scientific institution’s president, truly helpful the Chinese journal Caixin. He acknowledged he tried to warn officials, even sending them a timeline of how SARS escalated from duvet-as much as stout-blown disaster.
Doctors and nurses were falling in miserable health at several Wuhan hospitals that the Beijing team visited. But infections of scientific workers were not incorporated in the considerable numbers fed to the visiting consultants.
Zhongnan Scientific institution submitted three stories to provincial leaders warning that the “sickness became once highly infectious,” China’s Science Day-to-day later reported. Dr. Wang, the scientific institution president, truly helpful Caixin that he waited for the Beijing consultants to debate with him.
They by no arrangement did.
Doctors in Wuhan knew that, politically, there became once little incentive to reach neat with the pickle. Within the Communist Celebration pecking scream, the secretary of Hubei Province — whose officials had promoted a reassuring line about the virus — overshadowed the Nationwide Health Commission director.
“So what if we knew? I’d additionally heard of scientific workers being contaminated,” Yu Changping, a respiratory and extreme sickness doctor at Renmin Scientific institution in Wuhan, truly helpful a Chinese newspaper about the first weeks of January. “However the discipline suggestions from the authorities were sure on the time, so what also can I reveal?”
Dr. Ma became once infrequently oblivious to the rising risks. A Wuhan tourist visiting Thailand had change into the first case confirmed originate air China. The Nationwide Health Commission known as collectively scientific officials all over China on Jan. 14 for a video meeting — saved secret on the time — that laid out precautions against the virus.
Later on, the commission despatched out an interior directive: 63 pages that educated hospitals and illness management providers and products all over China about how to trace and cease the recent virus — and perceived to make a choice it became once contagious.
Yet the instructions hedged on the main pickle. There became once “no sure proof in the cases of human to human transmission among the many cases,” one share declared.
‘Your Closing Likelihood to Train the Reality’
In mid-January, Xi Jinping presided over a meeting of the nation’s two dozen high officials. There became once no mention of the coronavirus, on the least in the considerable summaries then and since.
Mr. Xi saved busy with other matters: his advertising and marketing campaign to instill Communist values in officials, and sealing a change deal on Jan. 15 with the US.
“The central government regarded nearly singularly excited about the change deal,” acknowledged an American industry executive who spoke with senior Chinese officials at some level of that month. “The epidemic did not reach up.”
Twelve hundred miles south in Guangdong Province, even though, smartly being officials and consultants, including Dr. Zhong Nanshan, were not reassured.
Dr. Zhong’s feature in helping to scream SARS, and then urging the public not to dread, had sealed his particular put. Even early in his career, Dr. Zhong stood out, as one of many first Chinese doctors despatched for practicing in the West in the slack 1970s. He studied in London and Edinburgh.
“He became once already fairly influential,” acknowledged Professor William MacNee of the College of Edinburgh. “I sensed even back then that he became once a vogue of a political persona.”
Now the pinnacle of a respiratory illness center in Guangdong, Dr. Zhong learned in mid-January about cases at a scientific institution in Shenzhen, a metropolis dazzling all over the border from Hong Kong. A family had examined certain for the virus after visiting Wuhan. None had gone to the market.
Then one other relative examined certain after entering the scientific institution on Jan. 14 — one who had by no arrangement gone to Wuhan. The virus became once being passed on esteem a baton in a relay fling.
“I knew that this became once extremely serious,” acknowledged Kwok-Yung Yuen, a professor of infectious illnesses on the College of Hong Kong, who helped investigate the case. “I straight sounded the fright.”
Officials in Guangdong held an emergency meeting on Jan. 16 to put collectively hospitals and smartly being officials. In coastal Zhejiang Province, Dr. Li Lanjuan, the archaic chief of the provincial smartly being put of job, heard that doctors in Wuhan hospitals were being contaminated. She known as Dr. Ma in Beijing to plod that consultants make a choice one other belief.
The political dynamic had modified. Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces are economic powerhouses, if anything else more highly efficient than Hubei. On Jan. 18, Dr. Ma enlisted Dr. Zhong to lead a third delegation to Wuhan.
There, Dr. Zhong learned from archaic students that “the actual situation in Hubei became once a ways worse than became once public or in files stories,” he truly helpful a Guangdong newspaper. He additionally met for breakfast with the president of Zhongnan Scientific institution, who described a calamity in the making.
Yet officials mute insisted the outbreak became once manageable when the governor of Hubei Province, Wang Xiaodong, received Dr. Zhong’s team in a resort conference room. It hasty grew to change into a difference.
“Nowadays is your final probability to portray the truth,” Zeng Guang, one other educated in the delegation, acknowledged, per primarily the most original e book about Dr. Zhong.
Indirectly, one of many officials acknowledged that 15 scientific workers in Wuhan Union Scientific institution were seemingly to relish been contaminated, an admission of human-to-human spread, the e book acknowledged. It became once all Dr. Zhong wished, and his team rushed to Beijing.
The test with gave Dr. Ma, the tip smartly being considerable, political duvet to press high leaders for urgent motion, acknowledged Mr. Huang, the educated on the Council on International Household members.
“They were prepared to originate that change,” he acknowledged. “They dazzling wished someone to play that feature.”
The next morning, Dr. Zhong went to the Chinese Communist Celebration leadership’s walled compound, Zhongnanhai. Mr. Xi became once away in southwestern China, and High Minister Li Keqiang listened because the consultants warned that the virus became once spreading.
“The outbreak is at a extreme juncture,” Dr. Zhong truly helpful a televised files conference that night time. “Already many folk relish fallen in miserable health, and a total lot of folk relish additionally gone on rush.”
Three days later, China had confirmed 571 cases of the coronavirus, even though consultants estimate the actual quantity became once many hundreds. Abet in Beijing, Mr. Xi closed off Wuhan, a metropolis of 11 million folk.
Rewriting Historical previous
Eleven days later, Mr. Xi became once facing a political disaster.
China’s web echoed with fury over Li Wenliang, a Wuhan doctor who became once reprimanded by the police after making an are attempting to alert colleagues to the coronavirus. Dr. Li now lay in a extreme care unit after contracting the virus. Emboldened Chinese journalists had produced searing accounts of missteps and lies in the outdated weeks.
Below fireplace, Mr. Xi defended his yarn at a Politburo meeting on Feb. 3, declaring that he had been on the case early.
Which capability that of the begin of China’s Lunar New Year vacation on Jan. 25, “containing the outbreak has been the pickle I’ve most cared about,” Mr. Xi acknowledged in a speech that became once not made public on the time.
Infections and deaths saved rising. On Feb. 7, Dr. Li died, unleashing a nationwide outpouring of distress. Questions spread in China and out of the country about Mr. Xi’s grip on energy.
Appealing to stamp that Mr. Xi remained in snarl, propaganda officials launched his Politburo speech from early February. With the exception of that ignited considerable more questions.
Except then, Mr. Xi’s earliest known feedback on the disaster were on Jan. 20. But in his speech, Mr. Xi claimed he had given interior instructions about the outbreak as early as Jan. 7 — before China had officially launched that the illness became once a coronavirus.
“Beijing wished to salvage on the yarn so no one also can reveal the leader had been asleep on the wheel,” acknowledged Richard McGregor, a senior fellow on the Lowy Institute in Australia, who has studied China’s handling of the outbreak.
On China’s web, folk asked why they’d not been warned sooner, given that the pickle became once urgent sufficient to head to Mr. Xi’s desk. And why, they asked, weren’t Mr. Xi’s true instructions made public?
But Mr. Xi’s speech foreshadowed what became once to return — rewriting the history of the disaster even because it became once going on. As smartly as quelling infections, Mr. Xi acknowledged, the party had to “use the initiative” on how the outbreak became once seen.
“We have to actively answer to global considerations,” Mr. Xi truly helpful leaders, “and portray a honest myth of China’s combat against the outbreak.”
By March, infections rose sharply in Europe and then the US and started to depart in China.
Official Chinese accounts pushed a brand recent myth of the outbreak, describing immediate, seamless coordination between Wuhan and Beijing. Episodes and folk that contradicted that myth were moved out of note. The authorities detained activists who had criticized Mr. Xi.
Damning investigations disappeared from Chinese files sites, including several cited in this text. Doctors and nurses in Wuhan who had been lauded for warning about the virus fell peaceful.
Professor Zhang, the Shanghai virologist, went unmentioned in the laudatory considerable stories. His evaluate center in Shanghai underwent “rectification,” hindering his evaluate.
In September, Mr. Xi honored doctors, officials and other Chinese for his or her feature in combating Covid-19.
China’s leaders had “acted decisively and spoke back to an out of the ordinary match with out of the ordinary measures,” Mr. Xi acknowledged in a 74-minute speech that infrequently touched on the time before Wuhan became once locked down.
He awarded Dr. Zhong the Medal of the Republic, China’s perfect honor. The following day, Of us’s Day-to-day — the Communist Celebration’s foremost paper — famend Dr. Zhong and cited one of his adages.
“In science, it’s a ways simplest honest to perceive truth from facts and never to play true,” Dr. Zhong became once quoted as pronouncing. “In any other case patients can be the victims.”
Compare and reporting were contributed by Keith Bradsher, Amber Wang, Amy Chang Chien, Albee Zhang, Elsie Chen, Coral Yang and Claire Fu.